The NHS allows scope for voluntary financial support of its institutions, and large numbers of people are motivated to engage in fundraising activities for NHS institutions – as witnessed during the early phases of Covid-19. Although most health care providers were absorbed into the NHS when it was established, scope remained for private provision of services by charitable organisations outside the NHS. Our project is concerned with the distinctive contribution these organisations and activities make, and the challenges they pose for policy. The work packages we are developing encompass these issues as well as the role of charitable support in innovation in health care delivery, the importance of voluntary action in engaging the public in supporting local health services, and the significance of voluntary organisations in their communities.