Germany’s DİTİB rocked by internal dissent, dismissals, and disputes

 

Recent months have not been kind to Germany’s largest Islamic association, the Turkish DİTİB. Particularly since the July 2016 coup attempt in Turkey, the organisation has been under fire for its real and supposed proximity to the Turkish government.

This criticism received new force when it was revealed that DİTİB’s Imams had done the dirty work of the Turkish authorities by spying and informing on suspected members of the Gülen movement in Germany.

Growing internal dissent

In all of this, DİTİB as an organisation and its internal workings have often continued to appear inscrutable. Compared to the Central Council of Muslims in Germany (ZMD) and its ambitious chairman Aiman Mazyek, DİTİB is also less present and outspoken in the public debate, adding to the sense of mystery surrounding the association.

Yet the post-coup political maelstrom and the deteriorating German-Turkish diplomatic relations appear to lead to growing internal dissent and schisms within DİTİB that are increasingly visible from the outside.

Asylum for DİTİB Imams?

DİTİB’s Imams are Turkish state employees, sent to Germany for a number of years before returning back home to Turkey when their contracts with DİTİB’s close to 1,000 mosques in Germany run out.

Since the coup attempt, however, a number of DİTİB Imams have asked for political asylum in Germany, for fear of arrest and persecution should they return to Turkey, due to their (past) affiliation with the Gülenist movement.(( https://www.heise.de/tp/features/Ditib-Bei-den-Ermittlungen-wegen-Spionage-laeuft-erheblich-viel-schief-3664619.html ))

Internal criticism repressed

In February 2017, Murat Kayman, coordinator of DİTİB’s local German branches stepped down from all of his DİTİB offices. Kayman had also been a member of the powerful DİTİB section in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia, home to a large share of German Turks.

Kayman had been widely perceived as one of the key advocates of a greater structural independence of DİTİB from the Turkish state, and his departure was seen as having occurred due to considerable internal pressure. At the time of his resignation, Kayman warned that all sides to the various ongoing German-Turkish disputes needed to “disarm verbally and to focus on substantive questions if they do not want to jeopardise durable coexistence”.(( http://www.ksta.de/koeln/murat-kayman-ditib-vorstand-legt-aemter-nieder—rueckt-verband-enger-an-ankara-heran–25773130 ))

Resignation of DİTİB’s youth leadership

Yet Kayman’s departure has not been the endpoint of DİTİB’s internal turmoil. In May 2017, the entire governing board of DİTİB’s youth organisation, the Union of Muslim Youth (Bund der Muslimischen Jugend, BDMJ), announced its collective resignation. The move came after the senior German DİTİB leadership had forcibly transferred two of BDMJ’s functionaries.

The BDMJ leadership complained that a meaningful continuation of their work had become impossible “in the face of the current situation that has been persisting for more than a year.” The youth leaders, who – like most of DİTİB’s grassroots functionaries, work on a voluntary basis – complained of “having been by-passed and not taken seriously once more” in the context of the dismissal of its two members.(( https://dtj-online.de/ditib-jugend-bdmj-ruecktritt-83748 ))

Local dismissals

The internal upheaval in the German DİTİB branch has also reached the very local level. In recent months, DİTİB’s highest functionary in Berlin apparently forced a change in the governing board of the German capital’s famous Şehitlik mosque (pictured above) by manipulating the list of candidates eligible to be elected.(( https://dtj-online.de/ditib-jugend-bdmj-ruecktritt-83748 ))

In other mosques, DİTİB Imams that were suspected of political disloyalty were fired. They subsequently contested their dismissal in court. Although the Imams lost their cases – the court stated that not DİTİB but the Turkish state was their employer – these affairs nevertheless cast a glaring light on the internal state of the association.(( http://www.lto.de/recht/nachrichten/n/arbg-koeln-entlassung-kuendigungsschutzklage-imame-ditib-moscheegemeinde-arbeitgeber/ ))

Pre-existing tensions

The recent events in Turkey and in German-Turkish relations have aggravated and brought to the fore a tension that, in fact, already predates these developments. In many respects, this is a tension over the future direction of DİTİB in particular and of Muslim associational life in Germany more generally.

The youth wings of Germany’s Muslim associations are filled by young men and women born and raised in Germany. Irrespective of their continued affinity to the country of origin of their parents or grand-parents, their upbringing in the German context has nevertheless shaped them in manifold ways.

Generational conflict

By contrast, the organisations’ ‘old guard’ remains essentially Turkish (in the case of DİTİB), with Imams and functionaries being sent by (and returning to) the Turkish state. Thus, the fallout between the DİTİB leadership and the association’s youth wing is also a generational dispute, in which the former is accusing the latter of having become “too German”.(( https://www.pressreader.com/germany/leipziger-volkszeitung/20170529/281608125386373 ))

DİTİB is not the first organisation to experience this conflict, either. In recent years, the German youth section of the Islamic Community Millî Görüş (IGMG) has also clashed time and again with the old leadership. The IGMG’s youth wing wished to break with an orthodoxy that seemed too traditionalist and too ‘Turkish’.((See El-Menouar, Yasemin (2013). “Islam und Sozialkapital: Beispiele muslimischer Gruppierungen in Deutschland”. In Klaus Spenlen (ed.), Gehört der Islam zu Deutschland? Fakten und Analysen zu einem Meinungsstreit. Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf University Press, 2013, pp. 382 ff.)

Future prospects

All this highlights the ways in which the German Islamic associational scene is in turmoil; especially the parts that are predominantly Turkish or of Turkish heritage. What remains to be seen is the ultimate outcome of this unrest.

Some, such as Lamya Kaddor, Islamic scholar and leading member of the Liberal Islamic Union (LIB), see the personnel changes as indicative of a new era of contestation and of much-needed debate. Especially the dissatisfaction among younger members shows, according to Kaddor, that Germany’s Islamic associations need to become more open, more democratic, and more adapted to the needs of Muslims living in Germany if they want to stay relevant.

At the same time, the internal purge that appears to be going on within DİTİB also raises the obverse possibility – of an association that is more and more under the conclusive control of fierce loyalists of the AKP and President Erdoğan and bereft of any alternative voices. In that case, dissenters will be faced by a formidable task of organising themselves anew outside of any existing fora.

Moroccan Asylum Seeker Returns to Netherlands

7 October 2011

 

Hassan Bakir, secretary general of Moroccan Islamist group Shabiba Islamiyya, was arrested in Spain while on vacation with his family, and detained for the past two months while Spanish courts rule on is possible extradition to Morocco.

Bakir had been living in the Netherlands since 2005. In 1985 at the age of 18 Bakir was sentenced to death in absentia for his political activities in Morocco. Following a 20 year exile from Morocco in Libya, he was granted political asylum in the Netherlands, now teaches at the Islamic University of Rotterdam. Bakir’s arrest in Spain acts on the 1985 conviction; he faces the death penalty if extradited to Morocco.

Bakir has publicly stated that he is disappointed with support he has received during the detention in Spain, as well as condemning newspaper reports labeling him a terrorist.

On 7 October newspapers reported that Bakir has fled back to the Netherlands from Spain in advance of potential extradition to Morocco. Radio Netherlands Worldwide quotes legal expert Bart Stapert’s opinion that, while Morocco can request that the Netherlands extradite Bakir, the country “will not do that because he has political asylum here.” Stapert further hypothesizes that while Bakir has criticized the lack of response from Dutch atuthorities, “behind the scenes they have done a lot more for him.”

An immigrant woman sewed her lips together as a protest: “in my country they are going to kill me”

A 34 year old Tunisian woman decided to sew her lips together to protest against the decision by the Italian authorities, to refuse her request for political asylum. The woman had also begun a fast. In Tunisia she had been repudiated by her family because she became pregnant without being married. Her brother threatened her with a knife and promised to kill her if she returned. Moreover, her brother-in-law, an Islamist condemned for murder, tried to force her to wear the veil. The woman fled to Libya and arrived in Italy in 2006 on a dinghy. She worked as a carer in different parts of the country. However, in 2009 she was arrested because her employer had ended up in handcuffs for drug offences. She was finally acquitted but was placed in a centre in Bologna for illegal immigrants, while waiting to be deported. The problem, claimed her lawyers, is that there is a legal prohibition of any deportation that places the person in risk of their life in their home countries. They were, therefore, going to lodge two appeals: one against the expulsion and the other against the refusal of political asylum by the Italian state. In the meantime, the woman was released from the centre. She doesn’t have to return to her country any more and her lawyers are going to appeal for international protection in order to prevent a permanent return to Tunisia.

Bin Laden’s son seeks and is denied political asylum in Spain

Spain has rejected an asylum request from Omar Osama bin Laden, the son of Osama bin Laden, after deciding that he did not meet the condition necessary for him to remain in the country. “The Interior Ministry has not accepted the request for asylum because this does not meet the conditions necessary for entering Spain,” an official said, speaking on condition of anonymity. Omar, who has been living in Cairo with his wife, has renounced his father and mentioned that he wants to be an “ambassador for peace” between the Muslim world and the West.

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Charity concert to raise awareness about immigrants

Two concerts were held on the island of Lampedusa to raise awareness about the plight of illegal immigrants. International Organization for Migration (IOM) spokesperson Flavio Di Giacomo said that “the concerts can do that little extra bit to help the Italian public and institutions understand the problems these people face.” Di Giacomo added that the migrants, who arrive to Lampedusa almost daily, are likely trying to achieve political asylum, and many are fleeing war and political persecution. IOM regional representative Peter Schatzzer said that he hopes the concerts will send a message of solidarity between Italy and other Mediterranean countries.

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