NOTES FROM THE IIIT CONFERENCE ON APPROACHING THE QUR’AN AND SUNNAH #19
[/This is the nineteenth in a series of my notes on the International
Institute of Islamic Thought conference on approaching the Qur’an and
Sunnah held in Herndon, VA. These notes are raw material for an edited
report I will write on the conference later and represent my perception
of the discussion. The proceedings will be published by IIIT at a later
time. The Minaret of Freedom Institute thanks IIIT for the grant that
makes the publication of these notes possible. Responsibility for any
errors in the notes is mine alone./]
Session 19. Moderator: Iqbal Unus
“Panel on Teaching Islam in American Universities”
Panelist Cemil Aydin:
There are more Islamic scholars in America than any other non-Muslim
majority country. When Ismail Faruqi began teaching the Islamic section
of the Academy of teachers has only twenty teachers, but now it has
grown enormously. MESA started humbly forty years ago but now has a
membership of 3000. Why? America’s imperial interest is one reason, but
not the main one. American Universities in recent years have overcome
their Eurocentrism at the same time as the boom in the inflow of Muslim
immigrants, a nonimperial humanist interest. Muslims are about half of
the scholars in the field and may soon become the majority. I think that
90% of the scholars today are in the humanist camp. During the invasion
of Iraq the Neocons complained that the scholars of Islam were not
helping them. Edward Said’s legacy now dominates the organization that
he criticized (MESA). In Continental Europe they want teachers who can
explain Islam, but they don’t want them to be Muslims.
In the last 200 years Muslim scholars have strongly been concerned with
issues of reform, but they were focused only on Muslim societies and
Europe. They ignored other non-Muslim societies. American universities
offer an opportunity to consider the issue of reform in a broader global
context. Comparative engagement with the non-Muslim societies could help
us overcome the limitations imposed by the myth of golden age and decline.
Panelist Mahmoud Ayoub:
I would like to look at the history of Islamic studies in America to see
where we are and to where we may move. Islamic studies began in the
colonial countries of Europe, with the Germans joining in the 19^th
century under the influence of the special relations with the Ottoman
Empire. Between the two world wars there was shift of power from Europe
to the U.S. and the U.S. adopted a number of European projects,
including the study of Islam, as a form of area studies rather than
religious studies per se. What may have initiated a change in this
approach was the rising European interest in religious civilizations
like Islamic civilization and the rise of American imperialism, which
differs from the European style in that the Americans wanted to
establish business concerns. Their interest in Islam was both commercial
and cultural, especially as Islam in America began to grow. People like
Gibb and Gruenebaum came to teach on America. Americans also became
interested in establishing centers and journals that dealt with areas of
special economic interest in the U.S. Things began to change drastically
after WWII with the growth of indigenous educated Muslims in America.
Jewish scholars including rabbis like Goitien did important work in
Islamic studies. The missionaries also took an interest in Islam. The
journal /Muslim Worl/d was founded to understand Muslims better in order
to convert them to Christianity. Missionaries started American
universities in the Middle East. There were also students like Kenneth
Morgan who changed from other fields to Islamic studies. Morgan was
interested in all the traditions of the world and wanted them to be
taught by people within the tradition, provided only that they did not
advocate, i.e. attempt to convert. A final group are the Arabs and
Muslims. In the 80s and 90s there was a concern about Muslims taking
over Islamic studies. I came to Islamic studies from the history of
religion and my view will be different from someone who was a physician
or engineer or political scientist, but we played a role in changing the
field. After 9/11 there was shift in which we emphasized trying to
present ourselves as friendly and good citizens, which is good, but
carries the danger of ignoring or watering down aspects of our culture
in order to be acceptable to others. We need to be true to our culture
and promote peace at the same time.
For a long time universities sought to teach Middle East studies without
teaching Islam. I think things have changed. The question is how long
will this interest in Islamic studies go on? God knows. We shall have to
wait and see.
Panelist Aisha Musa:
One of my pet peeves is the Islam vs. the West dichotomy. I’m of
northern European background and changed my name when I converted, but
if I knew then what I know now I might not have, since I am now mistaken
as being from the Middle East. When students enter my class they have no
knowledge that Islam is an Abrahamic faith. Until recently the modality
of teaching Islam, as a subset of the study of ancient or modern Middle
East, has not helped. Religious studies as an academic discipline is
only 20-30 years old. Public universities are trying to study religion
as a force in the world without preaching the religion. The highest
levels of Islamic studies have mainly been restricted to a few schools
in the East. I see a growth of interest in hiring Islamic studies
professors at state universities. When Jane McAuliffe gave her talk on
“Reading the Qur’an with Fidelity and Freedom” she said twenty years
earlier almost all of her students were non-Muslims, but now most were
Muslims. I see great hope but we have to move away from the West vs.
Panelist Khaleel Mohammad:
What I say is purely my own view and has nothing to do with IIIT or San
Diego University. I say this because I enforce a stereotype. I am a
terrorist. At McGill University there was decision to make at least 40%
of the Islamic studies faculty Muslim, but they moved away from that.
Despite the increase in vacancies for Islamic studies professors, I do
not see a beneficial development. The stereotype still exists that
Muslim professors will try to convert people to Islam. In 1898 at the
world parliament of religions there was a sustained rhetoric against
Islam. A lot of the rhetoric now does not have a positive goal in mind.
What is the solution? When we write our texts and they need it be
edited, why can’t we have it edited by IIIT? Because of the name. It is
still an uphill battle.
Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad: When I taught at JHU’s Social Change and Development
Program, the head of the Dept. of Middle East Studies objected that
Islam was being taught outside of his department.
Ayoub: It is important not to use our position to proselytize.
Abu Baker Al-Shingieti: How do we teach Islam without appearing to
proselytize? How can we teach the will of God?
Aydin: Some non-Muslim scholars have done more than the Muslim scholars,
for example the history of Sufi tradition. I recall when Faruqi refused
to include a panel on Sufism over the objections of the non-Muslim
scholars. There should be an intra-scholar conversation outside the
classroom where we can talk about the Islamic tradition in turn of
creating a better person.
Imtiyaz Yusuf: Everybody asks me if John Esposito is a Muslim. He is
not. He is a Hanif. The best you could have.
Ahmad: In my class on Islamic civilization at the University of
Maryland, I tell the students up front this is not a theology class. Of
course, you cannot completely eliminate theology from a discussion of
Islamic civilization, so I tell them they may ask questions about
Islamic theology in the second and third sessions, but not afterward.
Ayoub: We can’t teach the will of God. That is something one must
discover. We can only teach the revelation. What we need here, and IIIT
is probably the best to do it, is an Islamic Seminary (which is probably
not a bad name) that would be respectable in academic standards and
thoroughly train religious leaders and imams in a nonsectarian way, not
tied to a particular /madhhab/.
Mohammed: When a Muslim is considered to teach Islamic studies there is
a problem that does not arise when a Buddhist is considered to teach
Aydin: The links between academia and government are broken not just in
the area of Islamic studies. Washington think tanks are the
intermediaries between academia and the policymakers in government.
Ayoub: Two days before we were to meet to inaugurate the chair of
Islamic studies at Temple the chair yielded to pressure from Daniel
Pipes to cancel the chair.
Ahmad: The importance of think tanks as the bridge between academia and
policymakers is why the Minaret of Freedom Institute, IIIT, and the
Association of Muslim Social Scientists produced the /Directory of
Policy Experts on Islamic Studies and Muslim Affairs/.
Hisham Altalib: it would be interesting to compare the religious
affiliations of the teachers of Jewish, Christian and Islamic studies.
Aydin: There are very few Christians and no Muslims teaching Jewish
studies. There are many secularists and atheists teaching Christian
studies, leading to the phenomenon of student who “fail for Jesus.”
Ayoub: We all teach Christianity or Judaism in a sense in a world
religions course, as historians of religion. Regarding think tanks, they
are of different varieties. Some are funded by and belong to government
or intelligence agencies.
Ayoub: I think an introductory course in Islam should be an advanced
seminar with a focus on the rich civilization.
Mohammed: There is a new thrust that focuses on syllabus design. We have
boards that ask the students what they want to learn about.
Altalib: Why call Christianity, Islam and Judaism Western religions?
Ayoub: Because of the influence of Greek thought. We are all heirs of
Musa: You have to be a marketer in designing a course.
Ahmad: Judith Latham, now retired from Voice of America, has hosted a
salon in her home for many years she calls “Aristotle and Abraham: All
Their Children.” Even if you teach a course on theology, these other
questions will come up.
Yusuf: My students are surprised to learn that Christianity went to
Africa and Asia before coming to the West.
Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad, Ph.D.
Minaret of Freedom Institute