Approximately 660,000 Dutch adults view themselves as Muslim

The percentage of religious adults has further decreased in the Netherlands. In 2014 only a small majority of 50,8 % claimed to have a religious affiliation. The largest part thereof (40,2 %) consider themselves as Christian. 24,4 % is Catholic and 15,8 % is Protestant. 4,9 % of the Dutch population above the age of 18 years consider themselves as Muslim. The remainder of 5,7 % of the population is Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, or something else.

 

These are the results of a research that was presented by the Central Bureau of Statistics. The data was extracted from the Survey Working Population which was conducted between the period of 2010-2014 in which approximately 460 thousand adults (18 years of age or older) participated.

 

Further information can be found by following this link (in Dutch):

Religieuze betrokkenheid van bevolkingsgroepen, 2010–2014 [Download PDF]

Almost two thirds of Dutch teachers witness Muslim discrimination in class

More than half of Dutch teachers (61 %) have been witness to verbal or physical offenses against Muslims by their students. With that, discrimination against Muslims occurs more often than antisemitism (36 %) or discrimination against Christians (30 %), but less often than discrimination against homosexuals (77 %). These conclusions were based on a research report by research bureau Panteia who, at the behest of the Anna Frank Foundation and FORUM, conducted research on Muslim discrimination in Dutch higher education (the research report can be found via the link below).

 

The Anne Frank Foundation aims with this research, in which 498 teachers participated, to develop a current view on the nature and size of Muslim discrimination in Dutch high schools. The research is a follow up to the research that was conducted in 2013 on antisemitism in Dutch higher education.

 

A majority of the teachers (76 %) did not observe an increase or decrease of cases of Muslim discrimination in comparison to earlier years. Cases of Muslim discrimination most often occur in lower sectors of Dutch higher education such as in the sector of practical education (78 %) or profession-aimed VMBO education (70 %) and less often in higher sectors of Dutch education such as HAVO (55 %) or VWO (51 %).

 

Causes for incidents are most often related to (media) attention for disorderly of criminal behavior by youth with a (supposed) Islamic background. Attention for terrorism or terrorist organizations in the Netherlands or abroad are seen by teachers as possible causes for incidents. Perpetrators are more often men than women (57 % against 8 %). Typical perpetrators have a Dutch indigenous background (84 %), are from the lower sector of VMBO education (58%) and, according to the teachers, often either do not have a religious background (41 %) or the religious background is unknown (32 %).

 

Victims are most often of Moroccan or Turkish descent. According to the teachers in almost half of the most recents incidents the victim suffered from medium (30 %) or strong (13 %) emotional damage.

Link to the Panteia research report:

http://radar.nl/read/2745995

Processes of identification among second generation ‘climbers’ in the Netherlands [PDF Download]

Why do so called second generation ‘social climbers’, identify with their ethnicity? When do these adult children of immigrants, who reached high educated

A new study illuminates the processes of identity development amongst second generation Dutch Muslims.
A new study illuminates the processes of identity development amongst second generation Dutch Muslims.

levels, identify in ethnic terms and why? How do their identifications develop over time?

Many in the Netherlands wonder why children of immigrants, especially when they are higher educated, ‘still’ identify with their ethnicity, and why some of them ‘still’ have friends with the same ethnic background. Such co-ethnic orientation is often interpreted as an expression of segregation and as unwillingness to ‘integrate’. Does his view do justice to the experiences of these individuals?

In her research, Marieke Slootman focuses on this theme of ethnic identification. Furthermore, she considers the analytical use of the terms identity and ethnicity, and explores the possibilities of Mixed Methods research. She recently finished her dissertation, titled: Soulmates. Reinvention of ethnic identification among higher educated second generation Moroccan and Turkish Dutch. (English and Dutch summary can be downloaded below).

[Download Survey Here]

CAIR Exit Poll Shows High Turnout for Muslim Voters in Midterm Elections

(*WASHINGTON, D.C., 11/5/14) — The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), the nation’s largest Muslim civil rights and advocacy organization, today released the results of a midterm election exit poll in states with high concentrations of American Muslim voters that shows an up to 76 percent turnout (Virginia) of those voters and indicating that overall, more than 70 percent of those voters supported Democratic candidates.

CAIR’s poll also indicated a modest positive shift in Muslim voter support for Republican candidates, reflecting that party’s national gains.

“Muslim voters were energized and engaged, turning out at almost twice the average of all American voters in previous midterm elections,” said CAIR Government Affairs Manager Robert McCaw.

Compared to the 2012 elections, in which Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney received a single digit percentage of the Muslim vote, close to 20 or more percent (23 percent for Rick Scott in Florida) of Muslims elected Republican candidates for governor in yesterday’s elections.

Republican gains are attributed to winning over traditionally independent or undecided Muslim voters.

The CAIR exit poll of more than 3,000 registered Muslim voters in California, New York, Illinois, Florida, Texas, and Virginia was conducted using an independent automated call survey provider and asked two questions:

 * “Did you vote in today’s election?”
 * “Which candidate did you vote for (governor or senator)?”

*Detailed Survey Results:*

*California*

Question: Did you vote in today’s election?

Yes 72%
No 28%

Question: Which candidate did you vote for?

Jerry Brown (D) 76%
Neel Kashkari (R) 22%
Luis Rodriguez (G) 1%
Cindy Sheehan (P&F) 1%

*Florida*

Question: Did you vote in today’s election?

Yes 74%
No 26%

Question: Which candidate did you vote for?

Charlie Crist (D) 71%
Rick Scott (R) 23%
Farid Khavari (I) 2%
Adrian Wyllie (L) 1%
Glenn Burkett (I) 1%
Other 2%

*Illinois*

Question: Did you vote in today’s election?

Yes 74%
No 26%

Question: Which candidate did you vote for?

Pat Quinn (D) 77%
Bruce Rauner (R) 20%
Chad Grimm (L) 2%
Other 1%

*New York*

Question: Did you vote in today’s election?

Yes 59%
No 41%

Question: Which candidate did you vote for?

Andrew Cuomo (D) 72%
Rob Astorino (R) 19%
Howie Hawkins (G) 5%
Other 4%

*Texas*

Question: Did you vote in today’s election?

Yes 68%
No 32%

Question: Which candidate did you vote for?

Wendy Davis (D) 76%
Greg Abbott (R) 20%
Debra Medina (I) 2%
Brandon Parmer (G) 1%
Kathie Glass (L) 1%
Other 1%

*Virginia*

Question: Did you vote in today’s election?

Yes 76%
No 24%

Question: Which candidate did you vote for?

Mark Warner (D) 79%
Ed Gillespie (R) 17%
Robert Sarvis (L) 3%
Other 2%

These results support the findings of a pre-election CAIR survey  indicating that 69 percent of registered Muslim voters would go to the polls on November 4 and that more than half would vote for Democratic Party candidates.

Domestic issues like the economy and health care topped the Muslim voters’ list of priority concerns in the election. Growing Islamophobia in America ranked as the third most important issue for Muslim voters.

For additional American Muslim election analysis, contact: CAIR Government Affairs Manager Robert McCaw, 202-999-8292, rmccaw@cair.com.

Over the weekend, CAIR also mobilized Muslim voters through a get-out-the-vote (GOTV) call campaign contacting 102,452 Muslim households, with 54,914 live answers and 47,538 messages left on answering machines. The calls were recorded by regional Muslim leaders in California, New York, Illinois, Florida, Texas, and Virginia.

CAIR is America’s largest Muslim civil liberties and advocacy organization. Its mission is to enhance the understanding of Islam, encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties, empower American Muslims, and build coalitions that promote justice and mutual understanding.

Arab Americans and American Muslims Are at Risk

American Attitudes Toward Arabs and Muslim [PDF download]

This past week the Arab American Institute (AAI) released its third biannual poll of American attitudes toward Arabs and Muslims. Conducted by Zogby Analytics, 1100 likely voters were surveyed nationwide. The results were deeply troubling.

What we found was that there has been a continued erosion in the favorable ratings Americans have of both Arabs and Muslims, posing a threat to the civil rights and political inclusion of both Arab Americans and American Muslims. For example, in 2010 favorable ratings for Arabs were 43 percent. They have now declined to 32 percent. For Muslims, the ratings dropped from 36 percent in 2010, to 27 percent in the 2014 survey.

A direct consequence of this disturbing downward slide can be seen in the substantial number of Americans (42 percent) who say that they support the use of profiling by law enforcement against Arab Americans and American Muslims and a growing percentage of Americans who say that they lack confidence in the ability of individuals from either community to perform their duties as Americans should they be appointed to important government positions. Thirty-six percent of respondents felt that the decisions made by Arab Americans would be influenced by their ethnicity, while 42 percent of respondents felt that American Muslims would be negatively influenced by their religion.

Given the persistence of negative Arab and Muslim stereotypes in popular culture and the pervasive bias in media reporting, an explanation for these divides may be found in the different life experiences of these groups of Americans and the sources they utilize to get their news about the world. Other polling by Zogby Analytics demonstrates that younger Americans have developed a more inclusive and tolerant worldview as a result of their broader exposure to the internet and social media. Older Americans, on the other hand, rely on more limited traditional sources of information.

Another of the poll’s findings establishes that a majority of Americans say that they feel that do not know enough about Arab history and people (57 percent) or about Islam and Muslims (52 percent). Evidence of this lack of knowledge comes through clearly in other poll responses where respondents wrongly conflate the two communities. For example, by a two-to-one margin Americans say that they believe that most Arab Americans are Muslim, while in reality about one-third are. Similarly, opinions are evenly divided on whether the majority of American Muslims are Arab. In fact, only a one-quarter of all American Muslims are of Arab descent.

American Attitudes Toward Arabs and Muslims

American Attitudes Toward Arabs and Muslims [PDF download]

 

Executive Summary

Since we first began our polling on American attitudes toward Arabs and Muslims in 2010, there has been continued erosion in the favorable ratings given to both communities, posing a threat to the rights of Arab Americans and American Muslims. Favorable attitudes have continued to decline – from 43% in 2010 to 32% in 2014 for Arabs; and from 35% in 2010 to 27% in 2014 for Muslims.

A direct consequence of this disturbing trend is that a significant number of Americans (42%) support the use of profiling by law enforcement against Arab Americans and American Muslims and a growing percentage of Americans say that they lack confidence in the ability of individuals from either community to perform their duties as Americans should they be appointed to an important government position. 36% of respondents felt that Arab Americans would be influenced by their ethnicity and 42% of respondents felt that American Muslims would be influenced by their religion.

While the persistence of negative Arab and Muslim stereotypes is a factor in shaping attitudes toward both groups, our polling establishes that lack of direct exposure to Arab Americans and American Muslims also plays a role in shaping attitudes. What we find is that Americans who say they know either Arabs or Muslims have significantly higher favorable attitudes toward both (33% higher in both cases) and also have greater confidence in their ability to serve in important government positions. This is especially true among younger and non-white Americans, greater percentages of whom indicate knowing Arabs and Muslims and having more favorable attitudes toward both communities.

Another of the poll’s findings establishes that a majority of Americans say that they feel that do not know enough about Arab history and people (57%) or about Islam and Muslims (52%). Evidence of this comes through clearly in other poll responses where respondents wrongly conflate the two communities – with significant numbers assuming that most Arab Americans are Muslim (in reality, less than a third are) or that most American Muslims are Arab (less than one-quarter are).

The way forward is clear. Education about and greater exposure to Arab Americans and American Muslims are the keys both to greater understanding of these growing communities of American citizens and to insuring that their rights are secured.

How Americans Feel About Religious Groups [PDF download]

July 16, 2014

Jews, Catholics & Evangelicals Rated Warmly, Atheists and Muslims More Coldly

PDF DOWNLOAD OF REPORT: “How Americans Feel About Religious Groups”

Jews, Catholics and evangelical Christians are viewed warmly by the American public. When asked to rate each group on a “feeling thermometer” ranging from 0 to 100 – where 0 reflects the coldest, most negative possible rating and 100 the warmest, most positive rating – all three groups receive an average rating of 60 or higher (63 for Jews, 62 for Catholics and 61 for evangelical Christians). And 44% of the public rates all three groups in the warmest part of the scale (67 or higher).

Buddhists, Hindus and Mormons receive neutral ratings on average, ranging from 48 for Mormons to 53 for Buddhists. The public views atheists and Muslims more coldly; atheists receive an average rating of 41, and Muslims an average rating of 40. Fully 41% of the public rates Muslims in the coldest part of the thermometer (33 or below), and 40% rate atheists in the coldest part.

These are some of the key findings from a Pew Research Center survey conducted May 30-June 30, 2014, among 3,217 adults who are part of Pew Research’s new American Trends Panel, a nationally representative panel of randomly selected U.S. adults.

Jews Rated Most Positively by Whites; Evangelicals and Muslims Viewed More Favorably by Blacks than Whites

Jews receive their most positive ratings from whites, who give them an average rating of 66. Jews also are rated favorably by blacks and Hispanics (with each group giving Jews an average rating of 58). Evangelicals also are rated positively by all three groups, with their highest average rating coming from blacks (68). Muslims receive a neutral rating from blacks (49 on average), but they are rated more negatively by whites (38). Hispanics’ ratings of Muslims fall in between (43).

Politics and Religion: Partisans’ Views of Religious Groups

Republicans and those who lean toward the Republican Party tend to rate evangelicals very positively (71 on average). They also express warm feelings toward Jews (67 on average) and Catholics (66). The warmth Republicans feel for evangelicals may reflect the fact that many Republicans and Republican leaners are themselves evangelicals. Among those who are not evangelical Christians, evangelicals receive an average rating of 62. Mormons receive a neutral rating from Republicans and Republican leaners (52 on average), while Buddhists receive a rating of 49 and Hindus a rating of 47. Republicans and Republican leaners view atheists and Muslims much more negatively than they view other religious groups.

Democrats and Democratic leaners express warm feelings toward Jews (average rating of 62) and Catholics (61). Buddhists also are rated favorably (57 on average) by Democrats. Evangelicals receive an average rating of 53 from all Democrats and Democratic leaners, but this drops to 45 among those who are not evangelicals themselves. With the exception of Jews, all of the non-Christian groups asked about receive warmer ratings from Democrats and Democratic leaners than they do from Republicans.

U.S. Muslims Most Approving of Obama, Mormons Least

Relative rank order of religious groups stable throughout his presidency

July 11, 2014
by Jeffrey M. Jones

PRINCETON, NJ — Seventy-two percent of U.S. Muslims approved of the job President Barack Obama was doing as president during the first six months of 2014, higher than any other U.S. religious group Gallup tracks. Mormons were least approving, at 18%. In general, majorities of those in non-Christian religions — including those who do not affiliate with any religion — approved of Obama, while less than a majority of those in the three major Christian religious groups did.

Obama Job Approval, by Religion, January-June 2014

The results are based on aggregated data from more than 88,000 Gallup Daily tracking interviews conducted in the first six months of 2014 — a time when the president averaged 43% job approval among all Americans. Gallup interviewed 552 Muslims and at least 1,700 respondents in every other religious group during this time.

The relative rank order of the religious groups on job approval has been consistent throughout Obama’s presidency. In fact, the current rank order, with Muslims most approving and Mormons least, exactly matches the order seen over the more than five years he has been in office since January 2009.

Moreover, current job approval among each religious subgroup is between five and seven percentage points lower than the full 2009-2014 average for each. Obama’s current 43% overall job approval average is five points lower than his 48% average so far in his presidency.

Comparison of President Obama's January-June 2014 Job Approval to His Presidency's Average, by Religion

In general, when Obama’s approval rating has dropped among all Americans, his approval rating in each religious subgroup has dropped by a similar amount. The accompanying graph shows how Obama’s average approval rating among Protestants, Catholics, and Mormons has compared with the average among all Americans over time. Because the movement in each religious group has shadowed the national movement, Mormons have been least approving of Obama in each time period. Protestants have been consistently below the national average, and Catholics slightly above it.

Trend in President Obama Approval Among Protestants, Catholics, and Mormons

Similarly, Muslims have been the most approving among the religious groups in each time period. Jewish Americans and Americans with no religious preference have also exceeded the national average job approval in each time period, tracking each other closely.

Trend in President Obama Approval Among Muslims, Jews, and Those With No Religious Affiliation

Implications

The patterns in Obama’s job approval by religion have prevailed throughout his presidency, with Muslim, Jewish, and nonreligious Americans giving him higher ratings, and Mormons and Protestants giving him the lowest ratings. Catholics have typically been closest to the national average, but slightly above it.

As Obama’s overall job approval rating has had its ups and downs over the five-plus years he has been president, his ratings among religious groups have moved in tandem. That is, Americans of various faiths seem to react similarly to the factors that cause the president’s popularity to wax and wane, rather than reacting in idiosyncratic ways tied to their religious beliefs.

Clearly, members of various religions view the president quite differently, but this may be attributable more to whether Obama’s Democratic affiliation matches the political leanings of each religious group, and less to the specific policies and actions he has taken throughout his presidency.

Explore President Obama’s approval ratings in depth and compare them with those of past presidents in the Gallup Presidential Job Approval Center.


 

Survey MethodsResults for this Gallup poll are based on telephone interviews conducted January-June, 2014, on the Gallup Daily tracking survey, with a random sample of 88,801 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.

For results based on the total sample of national adults, the margin of sampling error is ±1 percentage point at the 95% confidence level.

Results for religious subgroups are based on the following sample sizes and margins of error:

Sample Sizes and Margins of Error for Religious Groups

Interviews are conducted with respondents on landline telephones and cellular phones, with interviews conducted in Spanish for respondents who are primarily Spanish-speaking. Each sample of national adults includes a minimum quota of 50% cellphone respondents and 50% landline respondents, with additional minimum quotas by time zone within region. Landline and cellular telephone numbers are selected using random-digit-dial methods. Landline respondents are chosen at random within each household on the basis of which member had the most recent birthday.

Samples are weighted to correct for unequal selection probability, nonresponse, and double coverage of landline and cell users in the two sampling frames. They are also weighted to match the national demographics of gender, age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, education, region, population density, and phone status (cellphone only/landline only/both, and cellphone mostly). Demographic weighting targets are based on the most recent Current Population Survey figures for the aged 18 and older U.S. population. Phone status targets are based on the most recent National Health Interview Survey. Population density targets are based on the most recent U.S. census. All reported margins of sampling error include the computed design effects for weighting.

In addition to sampling error, question wording and practical difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of public opinion polls.

For more details on Gallup’s polling methodology, visit www.gallup.com.

Obama, long mistaken for a Muslim, has huge following among U.S. Muslims

July 11, 2014

Misinformed voters — not to mention conspiracy theorists — have long believed that President Obama is a Muslim rather than a Christian. That number has reached as high as nearly one-fifth of all Americans and 30 percent of conservatives.

He’s not. But he is hugely popular among the U.S. Muslim community.

A new poll from Gallup shows 72 percent of American Muslims rate Obama favorably. That’s his best rating among religious groups — by far.

The numbers for Muslim Americans shouldn’t be surprising either, as they are heavily Democratic. Numbers from the Pew Research Center show 63 percent of Muslims are Democrats or lean Democratic, compared to just 11 percent who lean the other way.

Obama has also made a point in his presidency to reach out to the Muslim world — at least internationally.

Muslims have stuck by Obama more than basically any other group. Their support is down just 14 points from when Obama first took office. Every other group is down at least 20 points.

Obama’s approval rating among Muslims, Jews, and those with no religious affiliation