Recent research from Tilburg University stresses the importance of the common background between Moroccan jihadists in France, Belgium and the Netherlands. On Facebook they sympathize with each other, says researcher Claudia Lemos de Carvalho. She speaks of an “e-jihad ‘. There are bands of Moroccan networks with IS. “North Africa, especially Morocco networks have members with a high profile within the IS hierarchy,” said De Carvalho. “Dutch, French and Belgian jihadists have a common characteristic, their Maghreb background. Which gives them identity, strengthens mutual sympathy which binds them both online and offline.